A bomb is an explosive weapon that uses the exothermic reaction of an explosive material Unchallenged Hate - Napalm Death - From Enslavement To Obliteration provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy.
Detonations inflict damage principally through ground- and atmosphere-transmitted mechanical stressthe impact and penetration of pressure-driven projectiles, pressure damage, and explosion-generated effects. The term bomb is not usually applied to explosive devices used for civilian purposes such as construction or miningalthough the people using the devices may sometimes refer to them as a "bomb".
The military use of the term "bomb", or more specifically aerial bomb action, typically refers to airdropped, unpowered explosive weapons most commonly used by air forces and naval aviation. Other military explosive weapons not classified as "bombs" include shellsdepth charges used in wateror land mines. In unconventional warfareother names can Four Seats For Invalides - Blast! to a range of offensive weaponry. For instance, in recent Middle Eastern conflicts, homemade bombs called " improvised explosive devices " IEDs have been employed by insurgent fighters to great effectiveness.
Bombs built using bamboo tubes appear in the 11th century. When hit, even iron armour was quite pierced through. During the Mongol invasions of Japanthe Mongols used the explosive "thunder-crash bombs" against the Japanese.
Archaeological evidence of the "thunder-crash bombs" has been discovered in an underwater shipwreck off the shore of Japan by the Kyushu Okinawa Society for Underwater Archaeology. X-rays by Japanese scientists of the excavated shells confirmed that they contained gunpowder. Explosive shock waves can cause situations such as body displacement i.
Shock waves produced by explosive Four Seats For Invalides - Blast! have two distinct components, the positive and negative wave. The positive wave shoves outward from the point of detonation, followed by the trailing vacuum space "sucking back" towards the point of origin as the shock bubble collapses.
The greatest defense against shock injuries is distance from the source of shock. A thermal wave is created by the sudden release of heat caused by an explosion.
While capable of inflicting severe to catastrophic burns and causing secondary fires, thermal wave effects are considered very limited in range compared to shock and fragmentation. This rule has been challenged, however, by military development of thermobaric weaponswhich employ a combination of negative shock wave effects and extreme temperature to incinerate objects within the blast radius. This would be fatal to humans, as bomb tests have proven.
Fragmentation is produced by the acceleration of shattered pieces of bomb casing and adjacent physical objects. The use of fragmentation in bombs dates to the 14th century, and appears in the Ming Dynasty text Huolongjing. The fragmentation bombs were filled with iron pellets and pieces of broken porcelain. Once the bomb explodes, the resulting fragments are capable of piercing the skin and blinding enemy soldiers. While conventionally viewed as small metal shards moving at super- supersonic and hypersonic speeds, fragmentation can occur in epic proportions and travel for extensive distances.
When the SS Grandcamp exploded in the Texas City Disaster on April 16,one fragment of that blast was a two-ton anchor which was hurled nearly two miles inland to embed itself in the parking lot of the Pan American refinery.
To people who are close to a blast incident, such as bomb disposal Four Seats For Invalides - Blast! , soldiers wearing body armor, deminers, or individuals wearing little to no protection, there are four types of blast effects on the human body: overpressure shockfragmentationimpactand heat. Overpressure refers to the sudden and drastic rise in ambient pressure that can damage the internal organs, possibly leading to permanent damage or death.
Fragmentation can also include sand, debris and vegetation from the area surrounding the blast source. This is very common in anti-personnel mine blasts. When the overpressure wave impacts the body it can induce violent levels of blast-induced acceleration.
Resulting injuries may range from minor to unsurvivable. Immediately following this initial acceleration, deceleration injuries can occur when a person impacts directly against a rigid surface or obstacle after being set in motion by the force of the blast. Finally, injury and fatality can result from the explosive fireball as well as incendiary agents projected onto the body. Personal protective equipment, such as a bomb suit or demining ensemble, as well as helmets, visors and foot protection, can dramatically reduce the four effects, depending upon the charge, proximity and other variables.
Experts commonly distinguish between civilian and military bombs. The latter are almost always mass-produced weapons, developed and constructed to a standard design out of standard components and intended to be deployed in a standard explosive device. IEDs are divided into three basic categories by basic size and delivery. Type 76, IEDs are hand-carried parcel or suitcase bombs, type 80, are "suicide vests" worn by a bomber, and type 3 devices are vehicles laden with explosives to act as large-scale stationary or self-propelled bombs, also known as VBIED vehicle-borne IEDs.
Improvised explosive materials are typically unstable [ citation needed ] and subject to spontaneous, unintentional detonation triggered by a wide range of environmental effects, ranging from impact and friction to electrostatic shock.
Even subtle motionchange in temperatureor the nearby use of cellphones or radios can trigger an unstable or remote-controlled device. Any interaction with explosive materials or devices by unqualified personnel should be considered a grave and immediate risk of death or dire injury. The safest response to finding an object believed to be an explosive device is to get as far away from it as possible. Atomic bombs are based on the theory of Four Seats For Invalides - Blast!
fissionthat when a large atom splits, it releases a massive amount of energy. Thermonuclear weaponscolloquially known as "hydrogen bombs" use the energy from an initial fission explosion to create an even more powerful fusion explosion. The term dirty bomb refers to a specialized device that relies on a comparatively low explosive yield to scatter harmful material over a wide area.
Most commonly associated with radiological or chemical materials, dirty bombs seek to kill or injure and Four Seats For Invalides - Blast! to deny access to a contaminated area until a thorough clean-up can be accomplished.
In the case of urban settings, this clean-up may take extensive time, rendering the contaminated zone virtually uninhabitable in the interim. The power of large bombs is typically measured in kilotons kt or megatons of TNT Mt. The most powerful bombs ever used Four Seats For Invalides - Blast! combat were the two atomic bombs dropped by the United States to attack Hiroshima and Nagasakiand Billy Joel - The Stranger most powerful ever tested Four Seats For Invalides - Blast!
the Tsar Bomba. Below is a list of five different types of bombs based on the fundamental explosive mechanism they employ. Relatively small explosions can be produced by pressurizing a container until catastrophic failure such as with a dry ice bomb. Technically, devices that create explosions of this type can not be classified as "bombs" by the definition presented at the top of The Boy In The Bubble - Peter Gabriel - Live Blood article.
However, the explosions created by these devices can cause property damage, injury, or death. Flammable liquids, gasses and gas mixtures dispersed in these explosions may also ignite if Four Seats For Invalides - Blast! to a spark or flame. The simplest and oldest bombs store energy in the form of a low explosive. Black powder is an example of Four Seats For Invalides - Blast! low explosive. Low explosives typically consist of a mixture of an oxidizing salt, such as potassium nitrate saltpeterwith solid fuel, such as charcoal or aluminium powder.
These compositions deflagrate upon ignition, producing hot gas. Dedicated To A Lost Cause - Various - No-R-Mal II normal circumstances, this deflagration occurs too slowly to Unknown Artist - 50 Christmas Favorites Record 12 a significant pressure wave; low explosives, therefore, must generally be used in large quantities or confined in a container with a high burst pressure to be useful as a bomb.
A high explosive bomb is one that employs a process called " detonation " to rapidly go from an initially high energy molecule to a very low energy molecule. Therefore, the pressure wave produced by a high explosive is not significantly increased by confinement as detonation occurs so quickly that the resulting plasma does not expand much before all the explosive material has reacted.
This has led to the development of plastic explosive. A casing is still employed in some high explosive bombs, but with the purpose of fragmentation. Most high explosive bombs consist of an insensitive secondary explosive that must be detonated with a blasting cap containing a more sensitive primary explosive. A thermobaric bomb is a type of explosive that utilizes oxygen from the surrounding air to generate an intense, high-temperature explosion, and in practice the blast wave typically produced by such a weapon is of a significantly longer duration than that produced by a conventional condensed explosive.
The fuel-air bomb is one of the best-known types of thermobaric Four Seats For Invalides - Blast!. Nuclear fission type atomic bombs utilize the energy present in very heavy atomic nuclei, such as U or Pu In order to release this energy rapidly, a certain amount of the fissile material must be very rapidly consolidated while being exposed to a neutron source.
If consolidation occurs slowly, repulsive forces drive the material apart before a significant explosion can occur.
Under the right circumstances, rapid consolidation can provoke a chain reaction that can proliferate and intensify by many orders of magnitude within microseconds. The energy released by a nuclear fission bomb may be tens of thousands of times greater than a chemical bomb of the same mass.
A thermonuclear weapon is a type of nuclear bomb that releases energy through the combination of fission and fusion of the light atomic nuclei of deuterium and tritium. With this type of bomb, a thermonuclear detonation is triggered by the detonation of a fission type nuclear bomb contained within a material containing high concentrations of deuterium and tritium. Weapon yield is typically increased with a tamper that increases the duration and intensity of the reaction through inertial confinement and neutron reflection.
Nuclear fusion bombs can have arbitrarily high yields making them hundreds or thousands of times more powerful than nuclear fission. A pure fusion weapon is a nuclear weapon that doesn't require a primary fission stage to start a fusion reaction.
Antimatter bombs can Four Seats For Invalides - Blast! be constructed, but antimatter is very costly to produce and hard to store safely. An inert bomb is one whose inner energetic material has been removed or otherwise rendered harmless. Inert munitions are used in military and naval training, and Da Queste Parti Stanotte - Loredana Berte* - Bellissime are also collected and displayed by public museums, or by private parties.
The first air-dropped bombs were used by the Austrians in the siege of Venice. Two hundred unmanned balloons carried small bombs, although few bombs actually hit the city. The first bombing from a fixed-wing aircraft took place in when the Italians dropped bombs by hand on the Turkish lines in what is now Libyaduring the Italo-Turkish War.
During World War II bombing became a major military feature, and a number of novel delivery methods were introduced. These included Barnes Wallis 's bouncing bombdesigned to bounce across water, avoiding torpedo nets and other underwater defenses, until it reached a damshipor other destination, where it would sink and explode.
Modern military bomber aircraft Carlo Alberto Rossi, Enzo Ceragioli, Franco Monaldi, Renato Sellani, Oscar Valdambrini, Dino Piana, designed around a large-capacity internal bomb baywhile fighter-bombers usually carry bombs externally on pylons or bomb racks or on multiple ejection racks which enable mounting several bombs on a single pylon.
Parachutes slow the bomb's descent, giving the dropping aircraft time to get to a safe distance from the explosion. This is especially important with airburst nuclear weapons especially those dropped from slower aircraft or with very high yieldsand in situations where the aircraft releases a bomb at low altitude. Aircraft may also deliver bombs in the form of warheads on guided missilessuch as long-range cruise missileswhich can also be launched from warships.
A hand grenade is delivered by being thrown. Grenades can also be projected by other means, such as being launched from the muzzle of a rifle as in the rifle grenadeusing a grenade launcher such as the Mor by attaching a rocket to the explosive grenade as in a rocket-propelled grenade RPG. A bomb destroying a rail track just before a train arrives will usually cause the train to derail.
In addition to the damage to vehicles and people, a bomb exploding in a transport network often damages, and is sometimes mainly intended to damage, the network itself. This applies for railwaysbridgesrunwaysand portsand, to a lesser extent depending on circumstancesto roads. In the case of suicide bombingthe bomb is often carried by the attacker on his or her body, or in a vehicle driven to the target. The Blue Peacock nuclear mines, which were also termed "bombs", were planned to be positioned during wartime and be constructed such that, if disturbed, they would explode within ten seconds.
The explosion of a bomb may be triggered by a detonator or a fuse. Detonators are triggered by clocksremote controls like cell phones or some kind of sensor, such as pressure altituderadarvibration or contact. Detonators vary in ways they work, they can be electrical, fire fuze or blast initiated detonators and others.
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