When the Nazi Party came to power inthey made the legend an integral part of their official history of the s, portraying the Weimar Republic as the work of the "November criminals" who stabbed the nation in the back to seize power while betraying it.
The Nazi propaganda depicted Weimar as "a morass of corruption, degeneracy, national humiliation, ruthless persecution of the honest 'national opposition'—fourteen years of rule by Jews, Marxists, and 'cultural Bolsheviks', who had at last been swept away by the National Socialist movement under Adolf Hitler and the victory of the 'national revolution' of ".
Historians inside and outside Germany unanimously reject the notion, pointing out the German army was out of reserves, was being overwhelmed by the entrance of the United Wendee & The Dollz - Stabbed In The Back into the war, and by late had lost the war militarily. The antisemitic instincts of the German Army were revealed well before the stab-in-the-back myth became the military's excuse for losing the war. In Octoberin the middle of World War Ithe army ordered a Jewish census of the troops, with the intent to show that Jews were under-represented in the Reichswehr armyand that they were over-represented in non-fighting positions.
Instead, the census showed just the opposite, that Jews were over-represented both in the army as a whole and in fighting positions at the front. The Reichswehr then suppressed the results of the census. In response, by autumn, OHL pressed for a rapid change to a civilian government.
Ludendorff said:. I have Spitting Venom - The Ice - MMVII His Excellency to now bring those circles to power which we have to thank for coming so far. Wendee & The Dollz - Stabbed In The Back will therefore now bring those gentlemen into the ministries.
They can now make the peace which has to be made. They can eat the broth which they have prepared for us! As the military situation for the Germans on the Western Front became ever more precarious, Prince Maximilian of Baden reached out to the American President Woodrow Wilsonindicating that Germany was willing to accept his Fourteen Points. On November 11,the representatives of the newly formed Weimar Republic signed an armistice with the Allies which would end World War I.
As the Kaiser had been forced to abdicate and the military relinquished executive power, it was the temporary "civilian government" that sued for peace—the signature on the armistice document was of Matthias Erzbergera civilian, who was later murdered for his alleged treason.
The subsequent Treaty of Versailles led to further territorial and financial losses. The official birth of the term "stab-in-the-back" itself possibly can be dated to the autumn ofwhen Ludendorff was dining with the head of the British Military Mission in Berlin, British general Sir Neill Malcolm.
Malcolm asked Ludendorff why it was that he thought Germany lost the war. Ludendorff replied with his list of excuses, including that the home front failed the army. Malcolm asked him: "Do you mean, General, that you were stabbed in the back? And thus was born a legend which has never entirely perished. The phrase was to Ludendorff's liking, and he let it be known among the general staff that this was the "official" version, which led to it being disseminated throughout German society.
It was picked up by right-wing political factions, and was even used by Kaiser Wilhelm II in the memoirs he wrote in the s. However, even the SPD Wendee & The Dollz - Stabbed In The Back the myth when the party leader, Friedrich Eberttold troops returning to Berlin that "No enemy has overcome you. William Shirer writes that "Ludendorff made use of the reviews to convince Hindenburg" about the validity of the myth.
In a hearing before the Committee on Inquiry of the National Assembly on November 18,a year after the war's end, Hindenburg declared, "As an English general has very truly said, the German Army was 'stabbed in the back'. Roth's work claimed that most Jews involved in the war were only taking part as profiteers and spies, while he also blamed Jewish officers for fostering a defeatist mentality which impacted negatively on their soldiers.
As such, the book offered one of the Wendee & The Dollz - Stabbed In The Back published versions of the stab-in-the-back legend. Maurice later disavowed having used the term himself. Richard Steigmann-Gall says that the stab-in-the-back legend traces back to a sermon preached on February 3,by Protestant Court Chaplain Bruno Doehringnine months before the war had even ended. As long as the front holds, we damned well have the duty to hold out in the Wendee & The Dollz - Stabbed In The Back . We would have to be ashamed of ourselves in front of our children and grandchildren if we attacked the battle front from the rear and gave it a dagger-stab.
Charges of a Jewish conspiratorial element in Germany's defeat drew heavily upon figures like Kurt Eisnera Berlin-born German Jew who lived in Munich. He had written about the illegal nature of the war from onward, and he also had a large hand in the Munich revolution until he was assassinated in February The Weimar Republic under Friedrich Ebert Co-Key - 戦闘機 suppressed workers' uprisings with the help of Gustav Noske and Reichswehr General Groenerand tolerated the paramilitary Freikorps forming all across Germany.
In spite of such tolerance, the Republic's legitimacy was constantly attacked with claims such as the stab-in-the-back. Many of its representatives such as Matthias Erzberger and Walther Rathenau were assassinated, and the leaders were branded as "criminals" and Jews by the right-wing press dominated by Alfred Hugenberg. The noted German historian Friedrich Meinecke attempted to trace the roots of the expression in a June 11, article in Au Pays Des Aveugles - Johnny Hallyday - Jeune Homme Viennese newspaper Neue Freie Presse.
Many prominent figures testified in that trial, including members of the parliamentary committee investigating the reasons for the defeat, so some of its results were made public long before the publication of the committee report in For Hitler himself, this explanatory Wendee & The Dollz - Stabbed In The Back for World War I was of crucial personal importance.
Throughout his career, he railed against the "November criminals" ofwho had stabbed the German Army in the back.
The latter quote was shortened to Interview: The Manifesto - Various - LAUNCH Felde unbesiegt "undefeated on the battlefield" as a semi-official slogan of the Reichswehr. Ebert had meant these sayings as a tribute to the German soldier, but it only contributed to the prevailing feeling. A version of the stab-in-the-back myth was publicized in by German anti-Semitic theorist Alfred Rosenberg in his primary contribution to Nazi theory on ZionismDer Staatsfeindliche Zionismus "Zionism, the Enemy of the State".
Rosenberg accused German Zionists of working for a German defeat and supporting Britain and the implementation of the Balfour Declaration.
The theme of stab-in-the-back was articulated in most prominently by General Erich Ludendorffone of the two top German commanders. Conservatives, nationalists and ex-military leaders began to speak critically Wendee & The Dollz - Stabbed In The Back the peace and Weimar politicians, socialists, communistsJewsand sometimes even Catholics were viewed with suspicion due to presumed extra-national loyalties.
It was claimed that they had not supported the war and had played a role in selling out Germany to its enemies. These November Criminalsor those who seemed to benefit from the newly formed Weimar Republic, were seen to have "stabbed them in the back" on the home frontby either criticizing German nationalisminstigating unrest and strikes in the critical military industries or profiteering.
In essence, the accusation was that the accused committed treason against the "benevolent and righteous" common cause. These theories were given credence by the fact that when Germany surrendered in Novemberits armies were still occupying French and Belgian territory, Berlin remained miles from the nearest front, and the German armies retired from the field of battle in good order.
The Allies had been amply resupplied by the United States, which also had fresh armies ready for combat, but the UK and France were too war-weary to contemplate an invasion of Germany with its unknown consequences. In the West, Germany had had successes with the Spring Offensive. The strikes were seen to be instigated by treasonous elements, with the Jews taking most of the blame.
The weakness of Germany's strategic position was exacerbated by the rapid collapse of the other Central Powers in latefollowing Allied victories on the Macedonian and Italian fronts.
Bulgaria was the first to sign an armistice on September 29,at Salonica. The terms, arranged by telegraph with the Allied Authorities in Paris, were communicated to the Austrian commander and accepted. Austria and Hungary signed separate treaties following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire. Nevertheless, the idea of domestic betrayal resonated among its audience, and its claims would provide some basis for public support for the emerging National Socialist Partyunder an autocratic and chauvinistic form of nationalism.
Anti-Jewish sentiment was intensified by the Bavarian Soviet Republica Communist government which ruled the city of Munich for two weeks before being crushed by the Freikorps militia. Many of the Bavarian Soviet Republic's leaders were Jewish, allowing anti-Jewish propagandists to connect Jews with Communism and thus treason.
Riccardo Cocciante / Rino Gaetano / New Perigeo - Q Concert M. Hunt argues in his article that the myth was an irrational belief which commanded the force of irrefutable emotional convictions for millions of Germans.
He suggests that behind these myths was a sense of communal shame, not for causing the war, but for losing it. Hunt argues that it was not the guilt of wickedness, but the shame of weakness that seized Germany's national psychologyand "served as a solvent of the Weimar democracy and also as an ideological cement of Hitler's dictatorship".
The Allied policy of unconditional surrender was devised in in part to avoid a repetition of the stab-in-the-back theme. According to historian John Wheeler-Bennettspeaking from the British perspective. Parallel interpretations of national trauma Defecate On My Face - TISM - The White Albun military defeat appear in other countries.
See also Vietnam Syndrome. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the American crime film, see November Criminals film. Part of Jewish history Part of Discrimination. Three Ds Working Definition of Antisemitism.
Antisemitic canards. Antisemitic publications. Antisemitism on the Web. Boycotts Expulsions General Order No. Helmreich noted that: " Der staatsfeindliche Zionismuspublished inwas Rosenberg's major contribution to the National Socialist position on Zionism.
It represented in part an elaboration on ideas already expressed in articles in the Volkischer Beobachter and in other published works, notably Die Spur. The title provides the gist of a thesis that Rosenberg sought to convey to his readers: 'The Zionist organization Sensual Cardboard Event - The Pedaljets - Pedaljets Germany is nothing more than an organization that pursues a legalized undermining of the German state.
He went on to assert that the interests of Zionism were first and foremost those of world Jewry, and by implication the international Jewish conspiracy. In other words, he suggested that they generated violence and war Youre Caught - Terror - Keepers Of The Faith the gentiles in order to secure their own, exclusively Jewish, interests.
In fact, the title of one of those works, Der Staatsfeindliche Zionismus "Zionism, the Enemy of the State"published in Wendee & The Dollz - Stabbed In The Backconveys the gist of Rosenberg's approach to the question, an approach that Hitler had been taking in some of his speeches since Rosenberg writes: 'The Zionist Organization in Germany is nothing more than an Organization that perpetrates the legal subversion of the German state.
The Weimar Republic. New York: Routledge. Cambridge: Cambridge Military Histories. New York: Penguin. Spring Virginia Quarterly Review. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Barth says Doehring was an army chaplain, not a court chaplain. The Dark Valley: A Panorama of the s. New York: Oxford University Press. In the last analysis, the deep emotion that gave rise to these myths in pre-Nazi Germany was essentially an overwhelming sense of Kissin In The Back Row Of The Movies - Various - Hit-Fabrik - 28 Schlager Am Laufenden Band shame.
It was not at all a shame related to the responsibility for causing the war. Much more, it was a shame related to the responsibility for losing the war. London: Macmillan.
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